Linux User Group of Mauritius Promoting open source software in our beautiful island


Automatically raise windows in Gnome

Posted by Avinash Meetoo


I love Gnome 3… except when I am using a terminal, decide to launch Chrome by clicking on its icon in the Dash and not realising that the terminal still have focus despite Chrome being shown on screen. Consequently, typing, say, and pressing enter only sends these keystrokes to the terminal (despite Chrome being shown) with potentially serious consequences.

But lo and behold, I have just found a solution. Just launch the Gnome Tweak Tool as shown above and put “Automatically Raise Windows” to ON.

I have regained my sanity!


Automatically raise windows in Gnome

Posted by Avinash Meetoo


I love Gnome 3… except when I am using a terminal, decide to launch Chrome by clicking on its icon in the Dash and not realising that the terminal still have focus despite Chrome being shown on screen. Consequently, typing, say, and pressing enter only sends these keystrokes to the terminal (despite Chrome being shown) with potentially serious consequences.

But lo and behold, I have just found a solution. Just launch the Gnome Tweak Tool as shown above and put “Automatically Raise Windows” to ON.

I have regained my sanity!


Vagrant box export and import

Posted by Ish

I’ve been a VirtualBox user for a few years but I started working with Vagrant only recently. Vagrant provides an easy-to-use portable environment on top of virtual machine providers like VirtualBox, VMware, AWS etc; at least that is what is written everywhere.

While the internet abounds with articles and «expert» answers about how to work with Vagrant, I stumble upon a lot of blurry advice in needy times. The last resort, though not very tempting, is the official documentation. I say not very tempting because of the amount of reading required for just one set of command options.

Vagrant box export and import

Hashicorp, the company that funds the full-time development of Vagrant, hosts a catalog of Vagrant boxes for the different virtual machine providers, which is called Atlas. Let’s look at the command that is used to add a box to Vagrant.

vagrant box add opensuse/openSUSE-42.1-x86_64

In the above command opensuse is a user of Atlas and openSUSE-42.1-x86_64 is the name of the box. You might need the --provider option if you’re not using VirtualBox. Once the box has been added, it can be initialized as follows:

vagrant init opensuse/opensuse-42.1-x86_64

The command creates a Vagrantfile in the current directory with a lot of commented lines which you can uncomment to specify needed options with your Vagrant box (e.g shared folders, set memory etc). The following line in the file tells vagrant which base to use when provisioning the virtual machine the first time: = "opensuse/opensuse-42.1-x86_64"

To start up the Vagrant box we’ll do vagrant up and a bunch of messages depending on the Vagrantfile parameters will show up (e.g SSH port forwarding). Next we do vagrant ssh to jump inside the Vagrant box. The first time the Vagrant box is started, a virtual machine is provisioned in VirtualBox (since that is what I am using as provider). At next boot the VM will jump to normal startup unless «provisioning» options are specified.

As Vagrant users enjoy easy portability of the boxes, the same can be exported following this quick procedure:

vagrant package --output

Say you have set up a development environment on the openSUSE box and you need to share the same with other developers. The above command packages the virtual machine in one file, in our case it’s called Next each developer needs to add the box as follows:

vagrant box add openSUSE-devel

I am naming the project openSUSE-devel for easy reference.

Sure, if not executed from the directory containing then the full path to the file should be used. It makes the box available to Vagrant and a machine can then be initialized.

vagrant init openSUSE-devel; vagrant up

This creates the Vagrantfile and fires up the box. When one needs to destroy the box, just execute vagrant destroy and the virtual machine will be gone.

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Developers Conference 2016, day 3 with openSUSE bug hunting

Posted by Ish

I had my «openSUSE bug hunting» presentation scheduled at 09h30 this morning. I’m usually very lazy on Sundays but the enthusiasm of the Developers Conference is just an amazing feeling. Though we live on a small island, we get to meet some people maybe just once a year during this fun event. I picked up Shelly on the way and we reached Voilà Hotel at 09h05. Right at the hotel entrance Yash was waiting, he might have seen us coming. We went upstairs chatting and met JoKi. My presentation was scheduled at the Accelerator and I thought I’d just go and test the gear. Aargh! The TV had only HDMI cable and my ThinkPad had VGA & a Mini DisplayPort. That said, I needed an adapter. Joffrey who came around greeting everyone had a HDMI to VGA cable, which he lent me. At that same time JoKi also came with a Mini DisplayPort to HDMI convertor. Great! Then I had an adapter plus a backup.

I mirrored my laptop display and checked if everything’s fine. All good and it was 09h30.

Developers Conference 2016, openSUSE bug hunting

Thank you for the photo, Shelly :)

However, folks were still coming, so we thought let’s just wait till 09h45 giving a chance for others to arrive. Indeed I started at 09h45 sharp with a 3/4 full room and just a few minutes later it was «house full». That was great and a true encouragement though a Sunday morning.

Thank you for the (re-)tweets folks. :D

I chose the title of my prez «openSUSE bug hunting» from a blog post I wrote in 2013 while running «release candidates» of openSUSE. Starting the presentation I spoke about how some folks might organize special events working to hunt and find bugs, while some bugs we just encounter when doing regular tasks. What do we do when we find one of those bugs? Do we just ignore and think, «it’s just an error, nothing more», and we continue work? Do we search on the internet whether others encountered similar errors and if there is a fix? Few people ever consider filing a bug report through the right channel, unless it’s just a «button» away like some applications (e.g web browsers) offer.

Bug reporting most of the time require some information gathering from the system; that is where I took the presentation. Before diving further into the system though, I opened a few bug reports from openSUSE Bugzilla to show as example. I also gave a quick overview of the openSUSE Build Service and openSUSE Connect. That helped show the audience how to find package maintainers and get information about official and non-official packages.

I did not have slides; but I rather fired-up an openSUSE Vagrant box inside which I had setup an environment for demos. The rest of the «talking» happened within the Vagrant box. We looked at how to obtain system information using command-line utilities and from the /proc fs. Next we looked at digging for application error info in log files. We played with systemctl and journalctl which gave us clear and concise information about application states. We then queried using rpm and its various options to get as much information about packages that we can use when filing the bug report. At that time an openSUSE user from the audience said we can also use zypper to search for installed packages on the system. Yes, indeed, but rpm -qa | grep php shows no clutter compared to zypper se php. I however grabbed the opportunity to tell the audience that folks having a «debian lifestyle» can still type aptitude equivalents to search and install packages from the command-line; thanks to the «zypper-aptitude» compatibility scripts written by Bernhard M. Wiedemann.

All while we continued digging for application errors and how to search and sort things from the logs; I did a quick demo using Nginx and PHP-FPM.

We talked about the need of default configuration files after installing PHP 7 and that such changes need to be addressed with the «openSUSE factory» guys.

It was near 10h30 and Jeshan signaled me that the next speaker had already come. I asked for a last 5 mins to show something quick using the «strace» tool. Actually a university student asked me a question before the event and I invited him to come to the prez and ask the question again so we could altogether see how tracing tools can help us find useful information for bug reports. That part of the prez might be good for a separate blog post. I sincerely have to apologize to the next speaker if he is reading this post; we started 15 mins late and that surely must have impacted other presentations.

Eddy and I talked about work stuffs after the presentation. Then some of us went to Bagatelle food-court for a mini-break. When we came back Sun was preparing his gear for the next presentation. He talked about grid systems, explained what are decks & cards and how it’s used on He showed some hidden features of, like what happens when you type «heart» or «superlsl» while you’re on the homepage and how the text is read if you type «kozer» while you’re on an article page.

Sun demoed the «live article» feature of and the work needed behind to keep it light, simple and fast. He talked about «facebook instant articles» and definitely we’re proud to be the first media group, not just in Mauritius, but in the African continent to deploy the same.

After Sun’s presentation I met my ex-colleagues and we went for a pizza & beer lunch at Flying Dodo.

The pizza being late and as the Developers Conference closing ceremony had started Shelly, Ubeid and I rushed back.

JoKi’s wife, Mary Jane, Vincent, Louis, Arnaud and a few others, we had figured how to hijack JoKi’s speech and bring on some more party time to celebrate JoKi’s birthday. Yeah, he’s getting old, now it’s confirmed as he turns 40. Ubeid quickly edited some slides and we told JoKi that as he finished his speech thanking everyone, we had a quick stuff to show; some sort of observation we’ve made. Ahaan! That’s when Arnaud, helped by Mary Jane’s cousin, they brought that big cake along with its table.

Everybody cheered! Everybody laughed. We all had fun, we had cake, we took crazy photos and celebrated the end of Developers Conference 2016.

Developers Conference 2016

Developers Conference 2016

Developers Conference 2016

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DevConMru 2016, day 2 – Linux Installfest

Posted by Ish

It was Saturday morning and I found myself rushing to be at Flying Dodo just in time. Oh, to be precise «not in time» but like 15 mins later than I expected to be, that 09h45. The night before I got busy preparing the box of openSUSE goodies, sorted the stickers, pamphlets, DVDs and cheat sheets. Little I knew that folks would like those so much. I would tweet as I got the pack ready.

Shelly and I were the first geeks to reach Flying Dodo. While I would setup my laptop with the projector, she prepared the tables with the stickers and cheat sheets.

Developers Conference, Linux Installfest

The first few geeks came shortly afterwards. Ronny and Ajay from the Linux User Group of Mauritius came along with their gear. Oh, this little gang from the University of Mauritius hopped in and yes we were under attack. We also received the visit of folks from the PHP Mauritius User Group.

The morning session was great. Ajay, Pritvi, Ronny and Avish helped people getting their laptop Tux’ed either with Ubuntu or with openSUSE. Meanwhile I got to run an interactive session with the university folks with a command-line walk-through.

There was a question about email headers. I showed email headers from my Gmail account and also from Thunderbird. We talked a little bit about IETF RFC 2822 and together we looked at some of those colon-separated field values. Ajay gave us a simple yet clear explanation on SPF and DKIM. We did a ‘dig’ on a couple few domains to read the TXT records. Ajay explained about hard-fail and soft-fail in the SPF records and how they affect delivery of email.

I tried answering other questions that popped up; covering various topics like SSH, file permissions, etc, and we had real fun during that interactive session.

Jeshan joined us later after his AWS Lambda presentation at Voilà Hotel and offered a little support to Ashmita who tried installing openSUSE (dual boot) on her laptop. Mission was successful! It was great to meet Bernard who got an Ubuntu dual-boot on his laptop and Nirvan Mahadooa who wanted to meet the Linux geeks. I really hope we can continue the geek chat at a later time folks.

Some of us stayed till dinner-time at Flying Dodo sharing «samousa», pizza and beer. Oh, Shelly and I had non-alcoholic drinks. :D

Developers Conference day 2

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Customizing the GNOME Shell

Posted by Ish

A couple of weeks back I was customizing the GNOME Shell on my openSUSE Tumbleweed laptop by tinkering with the CSS files of the desktop theme. A colleague of mine who peeked onto my screen at that moment, as he needed to show me something, nudged at the ugly rounded-corner buttons he saw on the taskbar. To be precise that was the “window list” that he saw, an extension that can be installed from

I told him it only requires editing the Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) of the extension, which could be found at /usr/share/gnome-shell/extensions/, to adapt it to the desktop theme and make it more appealing. In fact, it did not take long to realize that removing the border-radius and the box-shadow actually blended the button better with the theme.

GNOME 3 - GNOME Shell, window list

.window-button > StWidget {
  -st-natural-width: 18.75em;
  max-width: 18.75em;
  color: #bbb;
  background-color: #393f3f;
  /* border-radius: 1px; */
  padding: 3px 6px 1px;
  /* box-shadow: inset 1px 1px 4px rgba(255,255,255,0.5); */
  text-shadow: 1px 1px 4px rgba(0,0,0,0.8);

He then pointed to title bar of the Firefox window and said “see, this thickness of the title bar makes it waste space.”

I looked at the window and replied “yeah, indeed but those should be configurable in some CSS file lying around.”

I then got back to work. Today, however, I looked at the title bar again and thought of reducing it’s size. A few hacks have been proposed by people who wished to achieve the same. The best proposal I saw was configuring through the gtk.css file rather than editing the individual theme files. If you do not find the gtk.css file, then create one ~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css.

.header-bar.default-decoration {
    padding-top: 3px;
    padding-bottom: 3px;

.header-bar.default-decoration .button.titlebutton {
    padding-top: 2px;
    padding-bottom: 2px;

Adjust the padding value to get the desired result. The above gave me a slimmer title bar that would not waste space as before.

GNOME 3, GNOME Shell, window title bar

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Build a personal wiki using Vim

Posted by Ish

I used to have random notes in text files scattered on the disk. Then I tried being an organized person by using things like Google Docs… but, after some time I would find myself coming back to the simple text editor when in need of quick notes. On my openSUSE laptop I would either fire up Gedit or if the terminal is already open I’d use Vim.

A few days ago while searching for some packages in the openSUSE repo, I came across the vim-plugin-vimwiki package for Vim. It turned out to be a handy plugin for the Vim text editor.

sudo zypper in vim-plugin-vimwiki

At next launch of Vim, type ww and press “enter” to start the wiki.

gVim text editor

Screenshot of gVim

A folder named “vimwiki” will be created in the home directory of the user. For example for the user “ish”, the following message will appear upon typing ww:

Vimwiki: Make new directory: /home/ish/vimwiki

A first blank file named “” will be created in the “vimwiki” directory. The wiki has support for links, which are created using double brackets, e.g [[Hello Wiki]]. The text between the brackets become click-able and the file “~/vimwiki/Hello” is created.

Vim Wiki links

One can navigate through the pages by pressing “enter” while the cursor is on the “link text” and using the backspace button to go to the previous page.

What about existing text files?

The existing text files can be renamed with a .wiki extension and moved to the vimwiki directory. Then use the double brackets to link to that file.

I find the Vim Wiki being a simple & effective solution to take quick (re-usable) notes in an organized manner. Surely other solutions exist but at the moment I’d stick to Vim Wiki.

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Find user IP address with Cloudflare & Nginx

Posted by Ish

A content delivery network (CDN) is a distributed network of servers that delivers content, typically webpages, to users based on their geographic location. A CDN would serve you from a less distant location on the network.

CloudFlare provides such a CDN service. A friend recommended me to use CloudFlare around a year or so, and I do not regret accepting.

Find user IP address with Cloudflare & Nginx

CloudFlare Global Network, Source:

I noticed considerable performance gain when I switched to CloudFlare.

PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=51 time=114 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=51 time=115 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=51 time=113 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=4 ttl=51 time=113 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=5 ttl=51 time=114 ms

--- ping statistics ---
5 packets transmitted, 5 received, 0% packet loss, time 4004ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 113.856/114.509/115.854/0.847 ms

CloudFlare bundles other features, among which the Firewall allows you to set rules for rogue visitors.

Get the user’s IP address with Nginx

CloudFlare proxies requests to your webserver and as such, your webserver log would record CloudFlare’s IP addresses. In order to obtain the user’s IP address in a request, you would need to activate the True-Client-IP Header from CloudFlare’s administration panel. However, that requires an Enterprise plan. It is not available in the free service.

There is one workaround using the ngx_http_realip_module in Nginx. It allows a change of the client address to one that is specified in the header field. CloudFlare specifies the same in the CF-Connecting-IP field. The technical story can be summed up as follows in the http context of Nginx:

http {

    real_ip_header   CF-Connecting-IP;


The IP addresses specified are those of CloudFlare and they can be obtained here. I suggest checking the page from time to time for updates or you might even monitor changes on the page (^^,) …

Ubuntu & openSUSE come bundled with ngx_http_realip_module. If Nginx is complaining about an unknown directive in your distribution, then you most likely need to compile Nginx with the --with-http_realip_module parameter.

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MaxCDN sponsors GNU Bash logo redesign

Posted by Ish

bash-orgOn 16 December 2015, Chet Ramey, the maintainer of GNU Bash announced an excited piece of news, that of new logo proposals for GNU Bash. The iconic Bash logo seen on the left was taken from

Depending on the number of votes from the community, one of the below designs could soon sport GNU Bash.


Bash, which is a short form of writing Bourne Again Shell, is a Unix shell that comes bundled in Linux distributions and OS X. Released in 1989, GNU Bash was welcomed as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.

Unfolding the story behind the Bash logo designs

maxcdn-logoI had this chat with Justin Dorfman, a fellow designer at MaxCDN, who had the idea of the GNU Bash logo redesign. As Justin explains, MaxCDN encourages its staff to contribute to Open Source in various ways.

Now, Justin is a huge fan of Bash, he adores stickers and realizing that GNU Bash doesn’t have an attractive logo, he wrote to Chet Ramey in September asking whether he would be okay with MaxCDN sponsoring a logo redesign. Chet showed the green light and Justin also obtained approval for resources from MaxCDN.

Justin says ProspectOne, the company behind jsDelivr and another freelancer were hired for the task. When the proposals were sent to Chet, he chose three designs by ProspectOne but could not further decide which one to select. Therefore they decided to let the final choice be that of the community and Chet sent the announcement on the bug-bash mailing list.

On the first day ~200 votes were recorded. A user by the name ‘anlar’ then posted about voting for the new bash logo on Reddit, which garnered 160 comments. At the time of writing this post over 12,000 votes were recorded, with logo no. 2 earning 79.3% of the votes.


I thank Justin who provided me an insight of the story behind the new Bash logo. Below are some of the designs that were among the initial proposals.


Is the final GNU Bash logo decided yet? Nah. You still have time to vote for your favorite. Please visit the page, and cast your vote now.

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Customize the shell prompt

Posted by Ish

During the week I confused the hostname of a friend’s machine to be his username. He has a MacBook Pro and the shell prompt in OS X displays like:

Hostname:CurrentDirectory User$

My openSUSE laptop has the following prompt and I like it this way:


He then asked me how to customize the shell prompt. Now, the shell prompt consists of a set of characters that appear every time the shell is ready to accept a command; like we see above. In order to customize the shell prompt with information that we want to display we need to provide some special characters to the PS1 variable (PS stands for ‘prompt string’). Additional input can be provided through PS2, PS3 etc but that’s outside the scope of this post.

We can set the prompt temporarily trying various combinations of special characters by executing something like export PS1="[t w] $ " to see a prompt like [14:52:48 ~] $.


As we can see above different sets of special characters can be used to customize the shell prompt accordingly. The table below shows various special characters that can be used to further customize the shell prompt.

Variable Description
t Prints the current time in hours, minutes and seconds.
@ Prints the current time in 12-hour am/pm format.
$ Displays the user prompt ($) or root prompt (#), depending on which user you are.
h Prints the hostname of the computer running the shell.
H Prints the full hostname (e.g localhost.localdomain).
u Prints the current username.
w Displays the full path of the current working directory
W Displays only the current working directory base name (e.g /var/log/nginx will be shown as ‘nginx’ only).

To make the shell prompt customization permanent, the value of PS1 can be added to the .bashrc file in the user’s home directory (e.g /home/username/.bashrc).

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