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31Aug/180

OpenVPN: All TAP-Windows adapters on this system are currently in use

Posted by Jochen Kirstaetter

OpenVPN: All TAP-Windows adapters on this system are currently in use

Working with several clients or partners might be an interesting challenge sometimes. While adding a new connection to an existing OpenVPN infrastructure I came across the following error message in the client log file: All TAP-Windows adapters on this system are currently in use.

Depending on how you actually installed your VPN client software you might be facing this issue while adding an additional client configuration for another connection. Especially when you are using a client software by a third-party provider, ie. WatchGuard Mobile VPN or Sophos. Perhaps you might be struggling to resolve it.

Get the TAP-Windows driver

Check whether you have the full installation of OpenVPN software. If yes, you might like to skip this the following steps and directly move on to add another TAP adapter to your Windows system.

Otherwise, please navigate to the Community Downloads of OpenVPN and either get the latest OpenVPN package, or if you think that this might be an issue, scroll down a little bit on same page and get Tap-windows package for your system. After the download is complete, run the installation routine and make sure to select TAP Virtual Ethernet Adapter like so:

OpenVPN: All TAP-Windows adapters on this system are currently in use

OpenVPN: All TAP-Windows adapters on this system are currently in use

You might have to reboot Windows to complete the network driver installation.

Add a new TAP virtual ethernet adapter

Now, you should be able to add an additional TAP interface to your system, and make it available for your new OpenVPN connection. Hit the Start button or press the Win key, then type tap and wait for Windows to give you its matches found on the system. Here is how it looks like on my Windows 10:

OpenVPN: All TAP-Windows adapters on this system are currently in use

Click on the entry Add a new TAP virtual ethernet adapter and confirm the User Account Control (UAC) dialog with Yes. You then see an administrative command prompt that adds another network interface to your Windows.

C:\WINDOWS\system32>rem Add a new TAP virtual ethernet adapter

C:\WINDOWS\system32>"C:\Program Files\TAP-Windows\bin\tapinstall.exe" install "C:\Program Files\TAP-Windows\driver\OemVista.inf" tap0901
Device node created. Install is complete when drivers are installed...
Updating drivers for tap0901 from C:\Program Files\TAP-Windows\driver\OemVista.inf.
Drivers installed successfully.

C:\WINDOWS\system32>pause
Press any key to continue . . .

And your OpenVPN client is ready to roll.

The shortcut below the Windows Start menu is linked to a batch file which you can also access and launch directly from %ProgramFiles%\TAP-Windows\bin

OpenVPN: All TAP-Windows adapters on this system are currently in use

Note: Ensure to run the batch file with administrative permissions. Otherwise, the driver installation will fail.

Review your existing Network Connections

Perhaps you would like to inspect the existing TAP-Windows Adapters? You find them in the Control Panel under Network Connections.

OpenVPN: All TAP-Windows adapters on this system are currently in use

The adapters are classified as TAP-Windows Adapter V9. Here you can enable, disable or even delete an existing network interface.

Some readers might prefer interaction with a command line interface (CLI). Well, even on Windows there is nothing to worry about this. The Network Shell (Netsh) of Windows has you covered, although it is recommended to use PowerShell to manage networking technologies:

PS C:\> Get-NetAdapter

Name                      InterfaceDescription                    ifIndex Status       
----                      --------------------                    ------- ------       
vEthernet (Default Swi... Hyper-V Virtual Ethernet Adapter             30 Up           
Wi-Fi                     Killer Wireless-n/a/ac 1535 Wireless...      28 Up           
Ethernet                  Killer E2500 Gigabit Ethernet Contro...      19 Disconnected 
Ethernet 4                TAP-Windows Adapter V9 #2                    15 Disconnected 
VMware Network Adapte...8 VMware Virtual Ethernet Adapter for ...      14 Up           
VMware Network Adapte...1 VMware Virtual Ethernet Adapter for ...      13 Up           
Ethernet 2                ThinkPad USB-C Dock Ethernet                  8 Disconnected 
Ethernet 5                TAP-Windows Adapter V9 #3                    52 Up           
VirtualBox Host-Only ...2 VirtualBox Host-Only Ethernet Adap...#2       6 Up           
Ethernet 3                TAP-Windows Adapter V9                        5 Up           

The information provided is identical to the visual representation in Windows Explorer.

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28Aug/180

OpenVPN re-visited

Posted by Jochen Kirstaetter

OpenVPN re-visited

It's been a very long time since I set up the VPN infrastructure at the office using OpenVPN. Today, I came across an interesting log entry that I would like to document quickly.

OpenVPN re-visited

At the time of writing I have OpenVPN 2.4.6 running on my Windows 10 machine. The existing infrastructure though is on a different version, and this morning I observed the following entries in the log file:

Tue Aug 28 08:50:09 2018 WARNING: INSECURE cipher with block size less than 128 bit (64 bit).  This allows attacks like SWEET32.  Mitigate by using a --cipher with a larger block size (e.g. AES-256-CBC).
Tue Aug 28 08:50:09 2018 WARNING: INSECURE cipher with block size less than 128 bit (64 bit).  This allows attacks like SWEET32.  Mitigate by using a --cipher with a larger block size (e.g. AES-256-CBC).
Tue Aug 28 08:50:09 2018 WARNING: cipher with small block size in use, reducing reneg-bytes to 64MB to mitigate SWEET32 attacks.

Curious about those entries I found Sweet32: Birthday attacks on 64-bit block ciphers in TLS and OpenVPN as an informative reference on the documented vulnerabilities CVE-2016-2183 and CVE-2016-6329. There I found the connection back to OpenVPN. Which is also described on the official wiki: OpenVPN and SWEET32

The default encryption for the transport protocol of OpenVPN is Blowfish – a 64-bit cipher – with the CBC mode.

Meaning, the default encryption of OpenVPN prior to version 2.4 is BF-CBC which doesn't provide enough security in recent times. Newer versions of OpenVPN though are using AES-256-CBC as default cipher.

Upgrade your cipher suite and block size

For your own sake and safety of your network(s) you should check and change your OpenVPN infrastructure right away, and if needed upgrade your defined cipher to a more secure encryption and larger block size.

OpenVPN users can change the cipher from the default Blowfish to AES

First, check which ciphers are available on your server and clients using the --show-ciphers option like so:

$ sudo openvpn --show-ciphers
The following ciphers and cipher modes are available
for use with OpenVPN.  Each cipher shown below may be
used as a parameter to the --cipher option.  The default
key size is shown as well as whether or not it can be
changed with the --keysize directive.  Using a CBC mode
is recommended.

DES-CBC 64 bit default key (fixed)
RC2-CBC 128 bit default key (variable)
DES-EDE-CBC 128 bit default key (fixed)
DES-EDE3-CBC 192 bit default key (fixed)
DESX-CBC 192 bit default key (fixed)
BF-CBC 128 bit default key (variable)
RC2-40-CBC 40 bit default key (variable)
CAST5-CBC 128 bit default key (variable)
RC2-64-CBC 64 bit default key (variable)
AES-128-CBC 128 bit default key (fixed)
AES-192-CBC 192 bit default key (fixed)
AES-256-CBC 256 bit default key (fixed)
CAMELLIA-128-CBC 128 bit default key (fixed)
CAMELLIA-192-CBC 192 bit default key (fixed)
CAMELLIA-256-CBC 256 bit default key (fixed)
SEED-CBC 128 bit default key (fixed)

Depending on your underlying Linux system the list might be more or less exhaustive. Have a look and then choose a key length of at least 128 bit.

OpenVPN currently recommends using AES-256-CBC or AES-128-CBC.

Following the article on OpenVPN and SWEET32 I chose to use AES-256-CBC cipher suite for my existing infrastructure. This seems to give me the largest compatibility between OpenVPN installations on various clients, including Raspberry Pi.

Change your OpenVPN configuration

Independent of the OpenVPN version installed, you can specify the cipher directive in your configuration files - server and client likewise. Usually that directive is either not present or commented, meaning it uses the compiled default value. Change it to your needs like so:

# Select a cryptographic cipher.
# This config item must be copied to
# the client config file as well.
;cipher BF-CBC        # Blowfish (default)
;cipher AES-128-CBC   # AES
cipher AES-256-CBC

This needs to be applied on the OpenVPN server first as well as on all OpenVPN clients. Save your configuration file and reload the new settings.

$ sudo service openvpn reload

Perhaps, you might like to publish your updated client configuration file(s) a bit earlier. With the newly set cipher any connecting client will be rejected now, if the cipher suites do not match. Monitor your syslog output on the OpenVPN server for that kind of entries:

Aug 28 07:33:26 smtp ovpn-server[18351]: 1.2.3.4:47081 WARNING: 'cipher' is used inconsistently, local='cipher AES-256-CBC', remote='cipher BF-CBC'
Aug 28 07:33:26 smtp ovpn-server[18351]: 1.2.3.4:47081 WARNING: 'keysize' is used inconsistently, local='keysize 256', remote='keysize 128'
...
Aug 28 07:34:08 smtp ovpn-server[18351]: client/1.2.3.4:47081 Authenticate/Decrypt packet error: cipher final failed

This way you are able to find out which clients are still running on the previous configuration and therefore would need a little bit of assistance.

Other hardware firewall based on OpenVPN

Thanks to some of the clients of my company IOS Indian Ocean Software Ltd. it happens that I have to connect to their networks via VPN from time to time. Given the changed cipher of my own OpenVPN infrastructure I wanted to see what others are using.

According to my own article Connecting Linux to WatchGuard Firebox SSL (OpenVPN client) one of the client configuration reads like this:

cipher AES-256-CBC

Whereas for another client who is using a firewall from Sophos the chosen cipher suite looks like this:

cipher AES-128-CBC

Well, looks like I'm in good company with my new option.

Security is a process, not a state

Again, lesson learned. Although running services on Linux is mainly about setting them up properly at the beginning, it surely doesn't mean to forget about them in the long run. Regular reviews and audits help to mitigate newer issues and threats to your network infrastructure.

If you are an active OpenVPN user please use the comment section to share other security related configuration settings and hardening tips on OpenVPN. That would be much appreciated by myself and other readers. Thanks!

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9Aug/180

The Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Finance of Singapore explains the country’s success

Posted by Avinash Meetoo

A big thanks to Alwin Sungeelee who shared this video to Christina and I yesterday. It’s an investigative interview of Tharman Shanmugaratnam (SG), Deputy Prime Minister & Minister for Finance of Singapore by Stephen Sackur (GB), Presenter, BBC HARDtalk.

It was conducted during the 45th St. Gallen Symposium in 2015 and the theme was “Singapore: 50 years after independence”.

Here are some notes I made while watching the video which I would like to share with you:

(1) The most important decision made by the Government in Singapore was to have state-funded and state-built estates (i.e. apartment in blocks) for lower-class, middle-class and upper middle-class people with ethnic quotas imposed by Government. This was to make sure that different people (different backgrounds, different religions, different cultures…) mix and grow together so that they ultimately can work and create together.

(2) Immigration is essential for companies to get the best talents, expertise, network. One third (1/3) of the current workforce in Singapore is foreign.

(3) Singapore needs to be open but remain Singaporean to the core. This means that Government has to define as precisely as possible the values that need to be shared among all Singaporeans.

(4) Singapore never invents anything. All institutions are inspired by what works in other parts of the world. As a result, it’s easier to have successes than failures.

(5) Singapore has high-skill high-wage enterprises today and this is important for a country to progress.

(6) One should not forget the intangibles (i.e. values): being constant, keeping to your promises (which obviously means that everything should be strategically planned).

(7) A country needs to make its elected accountable. It is important to create a culture of accountability where electors can expect their politicians to actually do what they promised they would do while campaigning.

(8) A country never arrives — a country needs to constantly develop.

(9) One thing that Europe and the US have managed to do is to give respect to manual workers (blue collar workers) and allow them to contribute at all levels. This is not yet the case in Singapore.

Phew.

We still have a lot of work to do here in Mauritius. And it all starts by Nation building. I wonder whether this should start by introducing kids to the contemporary history of Mauritius (say, since Independence in 1968). Most young people I have spoken to do not have a clue of what happened at the end of the 70s in the country and/or the kinds of social and economic transformation which happened during the 80s and the 90s. That’s a pity.

Then, of course, it’s all about strategic planning, methodical execution and careful auditing.